X xx haliwa
The minutes of the London congregation were kept in Portuguese until 1819.
The first congregational publication of bye-laws in English was the bye-laws of the Society מכסה אביונים (‘Clothing for the Needy’) in 1822.4. Most if not all of the prayer books were printed for use in London, more specifically in Bevis Marks and branch synagogues of the congregation.
There are to this day remnants of this Portuguese in the synagogue service, since the allocation of is still done in a mixture of Hebrew and Portuguese.
Therefore this is perhaps an appropriate moment for us to stand back and view this achievement within its historical context. De Sola commissioned a new font for his edition from the noted firm of type founders Alexander Wilson and Sons, who had moved to London from Glasgow in 1834. 39-40, which was reprinted in subsequent London printings of all the Day of Atonement Prayer Book. This suggestion is given credence by the fact that none of the examples examined, including those in their original bindings, were bound together; the two parts always appear to come separately. The first contains daily and Shabbat prayers and life-cycle events and occasional prayers for the minor festivals. The edition appears to be the first and only set of ‘traditional’ prayer books for the entire year ever printed with musical notes in the western style of musical notation. R Jessurun, and edited by Dr Gaster, who also contributed a preface.
An excellent brief history of the printing of the Spanish and Portuguese prayer book was written by Gaster in the introduction to his edition of the prayer book, and the writer wishes to acknowledge his debt to this important piece of work.  The firm already had a solid reputation for the quality and beauty of its Greek type. The second part commences with the additional service and ends with Negnilah, concluding with explanatory notes. The second contains a selection of prayers for the three Pilgrim Festivals. Musical notation had previously appeared, sparingly, in other Jewish liturgical works, the earliest being a Haggadah printed in Königsburg in 1644, but was a comparatively rare practice. These were arranged by the then choirmaster E. The Gaster edition may have been timed to coincide with the bicentenary of the opening of Bevis Marks. The example we examined has a note on the reverse of the title page saying reprinted 1921.
Only one Sephardi scholar and employee of the congregation, Reverend David De Sola, who was not even English born but an import from the mother congregation in Amsterdam played a prominent role in producing a Hebrew-English prayer book, until the 21century. It is inconceivable that as a minister of the congregation in the direct employ of the he did not have official approval of his undertaking, and even if he did not there would have been some record of official disapproval. Some subscribers are listed as purchasing more than one copy. Some of these were beautifully bound and given as Bar Mitvah presents. Their edition of the prayer book is particularly significant for the congregation because it incorporated for the first time the prayer for the Bar Mitzvah boy composed by of the British Sephardim. However, the second part of the first edition (which deals with the Foot Festivals) is absent. It is almost impossible to list all the changes that took place in each new reprinting. New Year prayers, but commencing with propitiatory prayers. This is followed on pages 267-280 with the traditional tunes in musical notation. Reprinted with amendments in 1934, 1969 (a major re-working) and 1987. This is followed on pages 190-209 with the traditional tunes in musical notation. Printed by Smith Settle, Yeadon and published the Society of Heshaim. There were several factors motivating this new edition.
Almost absent from the saga (until the turn of the twentieth century) is formal Congregational sponsorship and participation in the process of publishing and distributing the prayer book. However, his contemporary, Dayan Haliwa, whom we shall encounter in the next section, was an employee of the Heshaim and was a Dayan of the congregation but was not a minister of the congregation apparently acted in a more independent manner. The addresses of some of these subscribers are sometimes noted, and include many familiar locations such as Heneage Lane, Regent Street and Woburn Place. In 1867 he composed the Bar Mitzvah boys’ prayer which is still recited in Spanish and Portuguese synagogues in Great Britain and the United States till this day.He published numerous sermons and synagogue odes, and at least one sermon in Italian was printed before he came to England. The first contains daily and occasional prayers, the second part prayers for the pilgrim festivals, the third part Torah reading for weekday and Shabbat afternoon, and the fourth part for a Bar Mitzvah and Reflections on the Bar Mitzvah ceremony. Apart from the changes made to the prayer for the Royal Family, a selection of the most major changes are listed below. On page 143 is a list of dates on which the New Year would fall till 1951. This new edition was seen as a trial for a new edition of the daily prayer book and a new complete Shabbath prayer book that is currently being completed.The gentlemen of the Mahamad possessed extraordinary powers of censorship, and used them for reasons that are not always clear, as we shall discover. Justins, the printer of the first edition, and sold by H. The volume was issued with the rabbinical approval of Rabbi Dr Abraham Levy OBE the then Spiritual Head of the Congregation, who added a new introduction to the prayer book. Heshaim is now working on a new edition of the daily prayer book and the Sabbath prayer books which, because of considerations of thickness and utility, will be split into two volumes, a weekday one and a Sabbath one. On page xiii he describes the work of Alexander as having ‘long ago sunk into merited oblivion’. For further information on David Levi and his scholarship see ‘’ by David B. 193) but the original court report has “Solomon Mordecai Ish Yemene” as the name of the expert witness. On page xiii he describes Alexander’s edition as having ‘long ago sunk into merited oblivion’. P. xiii The title page of Yoreh De’ah has two variants. Although not printed in the London prayer book, the tunes of these poems are recorded by Emmanuel Aguilar in ‘’, London 1857 with a translation by Reverend David De Sola. The practice may have been adopted earlier; however I was unable to check all the relevant editions. See Hymanson, p. The translation differs from the translation of De Sola referred to in the first footnote. Bar Mitzvah boys’ prayer was first printed in America in the 1878 Philadelphia edition of the daily prayer book edited by Reverend Abraham De Sola, minister of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation of Montreal. A full bibliography of Gaster’s writings is included in the Gaster Anniversary Volume, ed.